Feb 14, 2020
코로나 바이러스는 코로나바이러스과(Coronaviridae)와 니도바이러스목(Nidovirales)에 속하는 non-segmented positive-sense RNA virus 로, 호흡기 질환을 일으키는 바이러스입니다. 폐렴을 야기하는 사람동물공통감염증의(zoonotic) 신종 코로나바이러스(COVID-19)는 2019 년 12 월 중국 후베이성 우한에서 발생하였습니다.
- 전문 -
Coronavirus is an enveloped non-segmented positive-sense RNA virus belonging to the family Coronaviridae and the order Nidovirales. It is a large family of viruses that causes respiratory illness in people. The new zoonotic human coronavirus which caused series of pneumonia cases has emerged in December 2019 at Wuhan, Hubei province in China.
The latest coronavirus to emerge has its similarity to both severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) that have caused thousands of cases worldwide in the last two decades. The new coronavirus has been identified through deep sequencing analysis from lower respiratory tract samples, and later named by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). On February 11, the World Health Organization (WHO) has named the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 as Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19).
The possible cause of the outbreak of the COVID-19 is linked to large seafood and live animal market, suggesting animal to person transmission. However, an escalating number of known cases reportedly did not have exposure to animal markets, suggesting a person to person transmission. Chinese officials report that sustained person to person transmission in the community is happening in China. The incubation period of the newly emerged coronavirus is between 2 to 14 days and remains infectious during this time. Common signs of infections include fever, cough, shortness of breath, malaise, and respiratory distress.
♦ 신종 코로나바이러스(COVID-19) 감염
Figure 1. Map showing the presence of COVID-19 worldwide. Information based on one-month report (31 Dec 2019 -12 Feb 2020). Image Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
The COVID-19 recent outbreak poses threats to international public health. A total of 45,171 laboratory-confirmed cases and 1114 deaths reported caused by COVID-19 has been declared from December 31, 2019 to February 12, 2020. Cases have been reported in China* (45 171), Singapore (47), Japan (28) , South Korea (28), Malaysia (18), Australia (15), Vietnam (15), Philippines (3), Cambodia (1), Thailand (33), India (3), Nepal (1), Sri Lanka (1), USA (13), Canada (7), Germany (16), France (11), United Kingdom (8), Italy (3), Russia (2), Belgium (1), Finland (1), Sweden (1), UAE (8), and International conveyance (Japan) (175).
*Confirmed cases in China include Hong Kong (49), Macau (10) and Taiwan(18).
With the increasing number of cases worldwide, several countries are implementing strict thermal screening of passengers to prevent any entry of the COVID-19. This aims to control the spreading of the disease in those countries. Statements from China, Japan, South Korea, and Thailand indicate that COVID-19 appears to be clinically milder than SARS or MERS overall in terms of its pathogenicity. However, pathogenic potential and transmission dynamics of COVID-19 are still questionable, which increases the risk of cases remaining undetected.
♦ COVID-19/ SARS-CoV-2에 관한 연구와 연구시설 - On-going Research and Laboratory Facilities for COVID-19/ SARS-CoV-2
As there is still no available anti-viral treatment for COVID-19, further research needs to be conducted to determine the pathogenicity and transmissibility of this disease via molecular detection and sero-surveillance. Moreover, the spread of COVID-19 in a healthcare setting requires proper healthcare facilities in containing the disease.
Facilities for undergoing research for COVID-19 should strictly implement the appropriate biosafety practices inside the laboratory. Following the biosafety guidelines of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), laboratory workers should wear complete personal protective equipment (PPE) including disposable gloves, laboratory coat/gown, and eye protection when working with infectious materials. Generally, in diagnostic and healthcare settings (e.g. hospital-based, clinical and public health), laboratories must be at least Biosafety Level 2 or above. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) both Biosafety Level 2 and 3 laboratories are the required laboratory set-up when handling the SARS-CoV-2.
Figure 2. A Biosafety Level 2 (BSL-2) Facility. Image source: WHO Laboratory Biosafety Manual, 3rd edition
The guiding principles for Biosafety level 2 laboratories are detailed and comprehensively discussed as they are fundamental to laboratories of all biosafety levels. This biosafety level facility is to be used only during a pathologic examination, molecular analysis of extracted nucleic acid preparations, electron microscopic studies, routine examination of samples, routine staining and microscopic analysis, final packaging of specimens for transport to diagnostic laboratories for additional testing, and conducting experiments using inactivated specimens. A Class II Biological Safety Cabinet is needed when manipulating a potentially infected specimen under risk group level 1 and 2 microorganisms.
On the other hand, guidelines for containment laboratories (Biosafety Level 3) include alterations of and additions to the basic laboratory guidelines which are designed for applications when working with risk group level 3 microorganisms. Viral isolation and initial characterization of viral agents found in cultures of SARS-CoV-2 infected specimens should only be contained on a BSL-3 facility. A Class III Biological Safety Cabinet is needed when handling SARS-CoV-2 infected specimens, in accordance with local national rules.
Figure 3. A Biosafety Level 3 (BSL-3) Facility. Image source: WHO Laboratory Biosafety Manual, 3rd edition
♦ Esco의 노력 - What can Esco provide?
생물안전작업대는 주로 미생물 실험과정에서 발생하는 감염성 입자 또는 에어로졸에 대해 사용됩니다. Esco 생물안전작업대는 샘플을 위한 무균 환경을 제공하면서 병원성 생물학적 물질(pathogenic biological agents)로부터 작업자와 작업환경을 보호하도록 디자인되었습니다. Esco 중국 담당자들은 신종 코로나바이러스(COVID-19)에 대항하여 고군분투하는 분들을 도와드릴 준비가 되어 있습니다.
Esco는 신종 코로나바이러스 연구에 대한 추가적 지원과 긴박한 상황에 조금이나마 도움을 드리고자 후베이 CDC system에 Esco Labculture® 생물안전작업대를, 광저우 의과대학병원(The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University)에 생물안전작업대 2대를 전달하였습니다.
많은 질병관리기관과 병원에서 Esco 작업대를 사용하여 신종 코로나바이러스전염병(COVID-19)을 극복하기 위해 노력하는 모습은 여러 뉴스와 미디어를 통해 확인할 수 있습니다.
신종 코로나바이러스로 인한 피해를 막기 위해 전세계가 노력하고 있습니다. 하루빨리 신종 코로나바이러스를 이겨내길 바라며 Esco도 최선을 다하겠습니다.
신종 코로나바이러스에 대응하여 고군분투 중인 모든 분들을 응원합니다.